Archive for May, 2010

DNxHD Settings (revisited)

Wednesday, May 26th, 2010

Some further tips found online:

  • []
    • You have more than a dozen choices in the DNxHD codec…  (but you might not see them) because of the little display bug. When you select the Avid DNxHD codec, a window pops up. At the bottom of that window is just a little sliver of a pulldown menu. Click that and all should become clear.
  • []
    • DNxHD is a broadcast codec. And types that are not broadcast standards are not included.
    • …in the “Custom Settings” you can … set the Frame rate and the Field order to suit your … footage.
  • []
    • Settings for HD interlaced:
      • Color levels should be RGB
      • Size should be 1920×1080
      • Pixel aspect 1:1
      • Field order Upper
      • DNxHD-TR 175 8-bit template
      • Be sure to click OK (the dialog may fail to display it)
    • Variation for HDV:
      • Thin Raster is supposed to be better for stretched pixels like 1440×1080
  • []
    • You will be able to preserve aspect and gamma with DNxHD. Be sure to select the right bit depth and color levels for your originals. (For a) 1440×1080 source, (i.e.) HDV, … you will want 8-bit, 4:2:0 RGB output to match the originals.
    • One user’s experience (not mine):
      • Here’s the file settings for … m2t files (as provided by MediaInfo):
        • 25Mbps, 1440×1080 (16:9), at 29.97fps, MPEG video component version 2,(Main (high @1440)) BVOP
      • Here’s what it reports for the .mov generated by DNxHD:
        • 220Mbps, 1920×1080 (4:3) at 29.97fps, VC-3, DNxHD
      • I’m not sure where it got the 1920×1080 frame setting from, though. In the frame size box, I had custom frame settings of 1440 x 1080 with a PAR of 1.333.
      • Reply:
        • 1440 X 1.333 = 1919.52 which rounds up to 1920.
        • Your render frame size should be set to 1920×1080 to preserve the aspect. As gets mentioned a lot in these forums, MOV does not respect PAR.
  • []
    • Best way to export timeline to FCP for CC:
      • Change your color space to RGB. Click the little pulldown window at the bottom, select 1080i/59.94 DNxHD 220x. And when you say OK to this window, change the slider from the current 50% quality to 100%. Then render out. The file will be slightly less than 2 minutes per gig.
      • Avid 1:1 is an uncompressed codec designed for SD video. DNxHD is an HD codec and the only one Avid uses.

Setting-up FCP Folder Structure

Monday, May 17th, 2010

This is how I’m doing it today:

  • Local System Disk
    • Render Files
    • Thumbnail Cache Files
    • Waveform Cache Files
  • Local RAIDs (One stationary, one portable)
    • _App_Specific
      • Final_Cut
        • _Projects (just for misc [.fcp] files)
        • Audio Render Files
        • Autosave Vault
        • Capture Scratch
        • Render Files
    • _Media
      • _Library
      • _Projects
        • 2010-04-30 (Client) Event
          • 010 Preparation
          • 020 Source
          • 030 Projects
            • FCP
              • EventTitle v001.fcp


  • I would have put everything on the RAID but for the Final Cut Settings interface, which only allows the first three items above to be on one location.  In contrast, the other items can be specified in a small set of possible locations, each of which can be toggled (enabled/disabled).
  • The structure below [Projects] should mainly branch by function then by application.  But it will vary from (real-world) project to (real-world) project.

Deleting (decommissioning) a FCP project and all its Media

Monday, May 17th, 2010

From [] and own experiences, my own advice to myself is as follows.  Note however:

  • It is not guaranteed to be correct or complete!  Just my own best-practice, so far.
  • It will only delete from scratch areas it actually knows about i.e. as defined in FCP’s System Settings.
  •  Even then, it doesn’t seem to delete everything.  After allegedly deleting all render files of all projects, I went through afterwards and found (and deleted) a number of files under [Render Files/Constant Frames].  Maybe a result of my messy initial novice practices – who knows!

My process:

  • Open the project in Final Cut Pro
  • Delete Project’s Render-Files:
    • Tools > Render Manager.
    • Use checkbox in the Remove column next to the name of the project whose render-files you wish to remove.
      • Warning: Do not check other projects or those projects’ render files will also be removed.
    • Click OK.
  • Delete Media Files in the Browser:
    • Activate the Browser window.
    • Select everything you want to delete (e.g. Select All).
      • Warning: Don’t select any clips, images, audio or anything else that is used in another project, or is used by another application (a photo that you are also using in a DVD project, for example), , as you will not want them to be deleted.
    • Modify > Make Offline.
    • Click the Move Them to the Trash button.
    • Click OK.
    • Close your Final Cut Pro project (and don’t bother saving!)
  • Delete the Project File
    • Drag it to the Trash after you have quit Final Cut Pro.
      • But how do I know where it is located, e.g. if it was the latest project, auto-loaded into FCP, I might not remember where it is.
        • Save Project As reveals the project file name e.g. [LenWed RecepLine Expt 001 copy.fcp].  Expanding the Save..As Finder reveals it is in a directory called [FCP Projects].  But not obvious where that folder is located.
    • There may also be project files in the AutoSave Vault(s).
      • In my case, this vault is on the System drive, because I save my main project files to real-world-project -specific folders on a separate Media drive (a local RAID).
  • Check any scratch areas etc. on other disks, e.g. System disk, in case anything got (accidentally) written there, e.g. if system was accidentally powered-up when RAID was not running.
  • Empty the Trash

MyBook on a multi-OS network (eg Mac & Win)

Sunday, May 16th, 2010

Can use Wester Digital’s MyBook drive on a network featuring multiple OSs, such as Mac OS as well as Windows, provided one does not install MioNet (bundled with the drive).  My instincts were right then (I did not install it).

In my case, the drive is formatted as NTFS, on a Mac it simply appears automatically in Finder then Mac OS is able to read it (Mac OS is able to read NTFS).  In retrospect, maybe would have been better to format it as HFS+ since then Windows could use MacDrive to not only read but write to it.  Meanwhile on Windows I found it necessary to run the “Discover” application bundled with MyBook, which configures the network drive mapping (to a drive letter).

DNxHD Settings (revisited)

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

When to use each variant?

  • []
    • Footage was telecined to HDCAM and digitized to
      •  DNxHD 36 format, which offers compact storage of crisp HD images and was essential for laptop-based HD editing.
      • DNxHD 115 was used occasionally for detailed wide shots, often for crowd scenes.
  • []
    • The Avid codecs allow you to select the color space (709 or RGB) and I believe that is why the RGB-YUV conversions are apparently handled better by the Avid codecs.
      • Something to keep in mind when embarking on projects that may require material to meander into the RGB space.
    • The big surprise for me was the performance of Avid’s DNxHD 36 codec.  (Only) 3.5% of the original file size… and look at how amazing it did.
      • Since it’s a progressive-only codec, I couldn’t run it on my second set of tests.
  • []
    • DNxHD 185 X is a 10-bit version of DNxHD 185.
  • []
    • 1080i/50 HDV is 1440 x 1080, as is DNxHD-TR 120.
      • TR means “Thin Raster” reflecting the fact that if viewed on the assumption of square pixels, the subjects would look thin, since really the pixels are “fat”.
    • 1080i/50 is 1920 x 1080, as is DNxHD 185 and DNxHD 120
    • Throughput: 185Mb/sec for DNX185 = 23MB/sec.
  • []
  • DNxHD 36 is great..BUT (as of 2007) only works in 1080p/23.98.  Why not 720p/59.94  or 1080i/59.94 ??   Answer: The format was created for the film-offline-HD crowd, thus the limited 1080p support.

Avid MC5

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

From article “NAB 2010: AVID MEDIA COMPOSER 5.0” of 2010-04-25 at [], as of 2010-05-15:

  •  Avid Media Composer 5.0 now works with the Matrox MXO2 Mini (not main or LE), not for capture, but for monitoring on a large monitor.
  • New advanced Avid Media Access (AMA).
    • This new version of AMA now allows Avid MC to access Quicktime files directly, and allows MC to EDIT those QTs without converting or transcoding them. So things like ProRes, the new Canon XF codec…they are directly accessed via AMA and you can just start editing them right away.  For example from files recorded on a KiPro unit or a QuickTime-based camera.
      • But move the files, and the connection is broken.   So, if you want to work with the footage natively, then move it to the folder you want it to reside in on your media drive, then import.
      • A possible FCP+AVid workflow: Utilize FCP to capture the footage (ProRes), use AMA to import that footage into AVID MC 5.0…edit (e.g. by Avid-only editing people) …then send that sequence back to FCP (via Automatic Duck) linking to the original media…send to Color to color correct, then output from FCP?
    • This also includes native RED files. Media Composer can edit them without the need to transcode.
    • You can adjust the color of the footage before you bring it over…apply a general look while you edit.
  • A FCP look&feel approximating mode called Smart Tools mode.  Can toggle between this and Classic mode.
  • AVCHD import. Before now you had to use third party applications to convert the footage to DNxHD, like ClipWrap. Not anymore. Now you can import the AVCHD footage directly into Avid MC via the IMPORT feature.  (But) there are multiple types of AVCHD (can it cope with them?).
  • Audio improvements:
    • You can now SOLO and MUTE on the timeline.
    • You can now access the Audio Suite plugins directly from the timeline.
    • And (for screen update speed) you can turn on Audio Waveforms on SELECT TRACKS ONLY.
    • You can now make a stereo pair appear as only ONE TRACK on the timeline. This works for stereo sound effects too.
    • Direct access to many audio suite plugins directly on the timeline. No need to go digging in the Audio Tool for them.

The  [] article also reported something about Avid remote editing using cloud computing, but that sounds to me like a whole other topic.

FCP Project Folder Structures: Advice

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

What’s a good folder structure for FCP?  I read and heard lots of tips from great sources, but some of them (e.g. keep [.fcp] files on local drive not Media drive) sounded questionable, at least from my context, and anyway I always want to know the underlying reason for anything.  So it’s research-time again…

  • .

There are several aspects:

  • .


  • Participants
    • Individual, small team or large team
    • Standards-based, methodical or haphazard
  • Application(s)
    • Apple (FCS etc.) -centric?
    • Combination of several apps e.g. several makes of NLE
  • Media
    • File size and value.
  • Storage system(s)?
    • Local
      • Normal or (relatively) slow drive
      • Fast drive e.g. RAID
    • Remote (probably shared).
      • Exceedingly Slow (e.g. web via standard broadband)
      • Slow (e.g. NAS such as WD MyBook)
      • Fast but with possible latency (e.g. “Fibre Channel” / SAN)
    • Integrated
      • Final Cut Server giving seamless access to all storage including near-line (easily-retrievable archive)?


  • Tidy organization
    • Easy to find stuff, including serendipitously.
    • Easy to manage stuff, e.g. archiving / shelving and reinstating.
  • Performance
    • User-level.
      • Keep
    • System-level
  • Security

My Conclusions (so far):

  • The typical professional situation involves multiple users on a SAN.   In this case:
    • Each user should configure their apps (e.g. FCP) to save small and transient files to local disk.
      • Local disk has less latency and minimization of small-file traffic on SAN improves its performance to all users.
    • An individual (or item) -specific project file, which counts as a “small and transient file”, should not be saved routinely or automatically to shared media server but only saved there on an occasional basis (e.g. at end of day or project).
      • Restricting this operation to end-of-project might “discourage” users from corrupting each other’s files, though really that’s what Permissions are for (in Mac OS X / unix).
  • Much advice relates to the “typical professional situation”, not all of it is appropriate to other situations.
  • .


Mac Aliases are like Windows Shortcuts but Better

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

From [] as of 2010-05-15]:

  • Aliases in Mac OS are like Shortcuts in Windows but better.   Aliases usually don’t break when you move or rename the original file; shortcuts do.
  • Alias feature has been on the Mac since at least OS 7 circa 1992. Shortcuts first appeared with Windows 95 in 1995.

sha1 Checksums

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

Based on [] as of 2010-05-15:

  • Apple recommends the use of the so-called SHA1 standard (Secure Hash Algorithm Version 1). Apple is using this method for their own security updates as well. For more information please also refer to Apple Support Article HT1652.
  • Perform the following steps:
    • Make sure you have the downloaded file displayed somewhere in the Finder.
    • Open the Terminal application.
    • Enter the command: [/usr/bin/openssl sha1 ] with a space at the end (not a Return).
      • Note the last character of ‘openssl’ is a small ‘L’ not a ‘1’
    • Drag the target file from the Finder window into the Terminal window. A path specification will appear in the Terminal window.
    • Now press the Return key (Enter).
    • You will see output similar to the following example:
      • SHA1(path specification)= 2eb722f340d4e57aa79bb5422b94d556888cbf38.

FCP Project Folder Structures: The (Non?) Fragmentation Issue

Saturday, May 15th, 2010

Reading book “Final Cut Pro Workflows” by Osder & Carman, 2008.  On page 284 it relays advice that it is best to put Project Files [.fcp] on a separate drive to the Media Drive (e.g. Media Drive= XSAN), due to:

  • Safety – not all on one drive
  • Avoid fragmenting the media drive (project files, cache and to a lesser extent render files) are written often (transient files?)

I’m not immediately convinced by these arguments:

How to view degree of fragmentation on an HFS volume:

  • []
    • Command-line app to report a variety of storage-volume statistics, including fragmentation.
    • After download, can check the sha1 checksum, but this is of the executable, not the download itself ([.dmg] file).  The ‘sha1’ command is inbuilt to Mac OS, as: [/usr/bin/openssl sha1].  Note the last character of ‘openssl’ is a small ‘L’ niot a ‘1’.

Capture to HFS+, Use from Windows 7: Experiences

Monday, May 3rd, 2010

On MacBook Pro, used Sony Clip Browser (ClipBrowser) to import footage from a Sony XDCAM-EX to Mac OS HFS+.  This machine had MacDrive installed, enabling Windows apps to directly access files on the HFS+ file system.  On same machine, under Boot Camp (BootCamp) and Windows 7, ran Sony Vegas NLE.   Successfully imported and used footage by both of the following methods:

  • Sony Vegas’s Device Explorer [View > Device Explorer].
    • This took several minutes to import.
    • Importing resulted in copying the [.mp4] file (and other files) to the NTFS partition.
  • Direct use of [.mp4] on the HFS+ partition.
    • No need to import as such, just constructed waveforms etc.
    • This completed in seconds.
    • Only downside is that it ewas unable to save the waveform files etc., due to my config of MacDrive (read-only), so it would have to do this every time I opened the project.
      • Have yet to try the same thing when MacDrive has config for full read/write access.

GRAID Mini – NTFS & HFS+ Partitions: Initial NTFS Problem

Monday, May 3rd, 2010

GRAID mini was initially a single partition formatted HFS+ under GPT partitioning-scheme.

Repartitioned it as MBR partitioning-scheme where the HFS+partition (existing but reduced) was followed by an NTFS partition.  The repartitioning of the disk and the formatting of the NTFS partition was accomplished from Mac OS, using the iPartition application.

When I first connected the resulting disk to a MacBook Pro, the HFS+ partition was seen OK under Mac OS.  However the NTFS partition seen from Boot Camp / Windows 7 caused Windows Explorer to crash, whenever it was selected or right-clicked in that applications left-hand pane.  On the other hand if the thing selected in the left-hand pane was the computer itself then the NTFS partition (among other volumes) was listed in the right-hand pane, and it was possible to right-click that without the application crashing.  Also, no problems were experienced when accessing it from commandline, or when using Windows Explorer to look inside its folders (as opposed to teh top-level).

By right-clicking the NTFS partition in the right-hand pane, selected options to:

  • Define it as a mainly-videos drive.  Presumably alters the block size or something.
  • Change that volume’s name, from “GRD mini NTFS” to “GRm HTFS.  Not sure if relevant.

Subsequently was accessed OK in both left and right hand panes.

iMovie Preferences & Directory Structure

Sunday, May 2nd, 2010
  • General
    • Show advanced tools [No] -> Yes
  • Video
    • Import HD video as: [Large 960×540] -> Full – Original Size

No way I can see to define the iMovie work-area folder, where media gets imported to for example.  Maybe there’s no choice over this, which would be a shame (don’t want movies filling up my system drive).  In my case the iMovie work-area was:

  • /Users/davidesp/Movies
    • iMovie Events.localized/
      • New Event/
        • iMovie Data
        • iMovie Cache/
        • iMovie Thumbnails/
        • <a source media file>
    • iMovie Projects/
      • My First Project.rcproject

FCP: Migrating, Consolidating, Tidying…e.g.bat ving…

Sunday, May 2nd, 2010

Sometimes the media files for a project are stored in several folders on one or more scratch disks. This happens if you selected a different scratch disk each time you captured media files, or when the name of the project file changes (this often happens when you save often to different filenames).  It would be tidier to consolidate all the media files for a project into one folder.Of course it may be better to avoid making a mess in the first place, as per this person’s advice: <<<I set up each project in its own folder so and then set up capture scratch render files and everything else. This way if I need to move anything you can move the folder onto the hard drive and you dont have to worry about what stuff to move.  >>>There are two approaches (I am aware of):

  • Manually copy/move the relevant files (project, source media, renders) then Reconnect the consequently offline media.
    • May only have to reconnect one file, provided the reconnect all files in this relative path option is checked.
  • Use Media Manager.  This is more efficient, because all of your clips are reconnected automatically after the media files are moved.

The Manual Approach:

  • The Project file.
    • This is the most important file.
      • If all the media in your project came from external media or generated media like titles or color mattes, this is the only file you actually need to move to another computer.  Everything else can be re-imported (e.g. batch-captured) or re-created (e.g. re-rendered).
      • But usually you’ll want to bring other files with you, as below.
  • Source Media files.
    • Recordings e.g. captured video and audio clips. These are usually stored in your Capture Scratch folder in a folder with your project name (unless you saved them elsewhere or moved them). If you move these to another computer, you should only have to reconnect one file, if you have the reconnect all files in this relative path option checked.
    • Other media/project files – you might have Motion or LiveType projects, Photoshop graphics, After Effects animations, or any number of other media files for your project- obviously you’ll want to move these over to the new system, and you might want the original project files also.
  • Render-files.
    • There are exceptions, but it is best not to move render files – this can lead to problems.
    • It’s better to rerender on the new system. If you must move them, they are in the “Render Files” folder.

The Media Manager Approach:

  • OS X:
    • Ensure there is a destination folder for the project.
  • FCP:
    • In the Browser, select all items in the project.
    • Make sure the Browser window is active.
    • Menu: [File > Media Manager]
    • Set the required options e.g. handles (margins), select the destination folder (mentioned above) and press [OK].
    • Files created by the Media Manager:
      • [<Destination Folder>]
        • Project File [<projname>.fcp].
        • [Media]
          • [<projname>]
            • <Media Files>
    • This structure is a bit mad but it’s the FCP convention…


Mac:BootCamp:W7: FireWire Issues?

Sunday, May 2nd, 2010

Some hard drives attached with FireWire may perform slowly with Windows 7 on a MacBook Pro (15-inch, Mid 2010).  Not aware of any such problem on my system, but found this in passing, worth keeping a note of…[]

  • MacBook Pro (15-inch, Mid 2010): FireWire drives perform slowly with Windows 7
    • Last Modified: April 14, 2010
    • Article: TS3188
  • Issue:
    • Some hard drives attached with FireWire may perform slowly with Windows 7 on a MacBook Pro (15-inch, Mid 2010).
  • Products Affected
    • Boot Camp, MacBook Pro (15-inch, Mid 2010), Windows 7
  • Resolution
    • This situation may occur because of an issue in the 1394ohci.sys driver in Windows 7.
    • Microsoft has posted a “hot fix” for this issue.  See the Microsoft website for more information.

MacBook Pro ExpressCard Slot: Unreliable?

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

Using the ExpressCard slot for SxS cards (XDCAM-EX) in Mac OS, I noticed that sometimes they dpn’t appear to “seat” properly, removing and reinserting the card normally fixes this.  I wondered if it was just my machine, but I just read of a similar experience by others: [].

SxS in ExpressCard slot on MacBook Pro invisible to Windows 7 Boot Camp

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

On a MacBook Pro, official SxS card in ExpressCard slot is seen OK by Mac OS. However on same machine running Boot Camp Windows 7, it is not seen.SxS drivers have been installed in both cases (OS X & W7). For W7 I tried a couple of versions, including the one from SXS Drivers, stated as “Updated for Windows 7”. The webpage also says “This OS must be factory-installed”, so I wonder what special things they do at the factory!I see at an apple forum some comments (at []) that “there is still no ExpressCard support in release 3.1 (of Boot Camp)” and “At the moment I’m aware of exactly zero Firewire ExpressCards that work in Windows 7 on Boot Camp”. Not familiar with this territory – maybe implies that the Sony drivers are not sufficient?Posted my problem at DvInfo: [].  Response confirms Apple not only do not support ExpressCard (EC) under Boot Camp on a MacBook Pro, they may never do so, given that the new model lacks any EC slot.

Windows 7: [Program Files] & [Program Files x86]

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

 In Windows 7, there are two applications folders.   Presumably the same as in Vista (which I have never used), as reported at []:

  • Program Files = 64bit apps
  • Program Files x86 = 32bit apps
  • If the installer is a 32bit application, it will install it to the x86 directory. If it’s a 64bit application it will install it to the regular one.

Spring-Clean of Windows Machines

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

Remove large items e.g. video files (to separate storage or delete).[]

  •  Windows: [Start > Run > Cleanmgr.exe]
  • Defrag (registry as well as volumes)
    • No slowness problems so didn’t try that.  If it ain’t broken…

Resulting filespace usage:

  • Windows 7
    • System Disk (Boot Camp) 41 GB
    • …includes Documents 175 MB
  • XP SP3
    • Initially:
      • System Disk 42 GB
      • …includes My Documents 21 GB, mostly large downloads.
    • Finally (once these downloads were migrated elsewhere):
      • System Disk: 20 GB
      • My Documents 370 MB

Pros & cons of Device Explorer in Sony Vegas

Saturday, May 1st, 2010


  • as of May 2009:
    • Technically, you “can” edit the .mp4 files right from the card. You’d need to drill down through the directories via the standard Vegas Explorer tool (not the new Device Explorer), find your .mp4 clip, and bring it into your project.
    • “We do not currently support shot markers from EX in the Vegas Pro 9 Device Explorer, but it is on our radar.”
    • Spanning clips does not work properly for everybody (could in principle be due to their circumstances as much as the app).  Recommended to join these together using ClipBrowser thenexport as MXF for NLEs.  … It is really the same concept as (FCP’s) XDCAM Transfer except instead of re-wrapping as [.mov] it re-wraps as [.mxf].
    • (In the case of FCP) … the metadata is part of the MOV after … re-wrapping the file for FCP.  (Possibly) Vegas had a problem with managing the metadata and their solution was just to (import the) native (essence/mp4) files.

My own experiences:

  • A long shoot gets listed as a sequence of smaller clips, corresponding to the separate [.mp4] files recorded by the camera.  This is known as a spanned clip.  Each of the smaller clips is of size no more than around 3.5 GB.
  • Device Explorer import results:
    • Clips with names like [929_1332_01_20100318_191600] i.e. having datetimes.
    • These clips consist of the following files, with main file name as per the clip:
      • XDCAM-EX:  [.mp4], [.xml]
      • AVCHD: [.mts] (but no clip info files).

Sony Vegas 9 – Device Explorer – Import-Folder

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

The Device Explorer in Sony Vegas , available (unintuitively to me) under the View menu (as opposed to the Tools menu), lists devices such as XDCAM-EX cards and disks, and when selected, presents thumbnails.  You can select these and Import.  But where do they get imported to, and can this be changed?  Not hard, but not that obvious either [].  I expected it to be in [Options > Preferences] but no.

By default, Imports from Device Explorer go to [Imported Media] folder in the user’s  [My Documents] folder.

  • e.g. [C:\Users\David\Documents\Imported Media]

To select an alternative, select the device listed in Device Explorer, then [RtClk > Properties].  Not aware of any way to change the default itself, so just have to remember to do this every time.  In comparison, FCP lets you change the default import/capature folder but in practice, as for Vegas, one tends to change it for each project.

FAT32 Size Limits (Partition and File)

Saturday, May 1st, 2010

  • FAT32 file-size limit is (2^32)-1 bytes, or one byte less than a full 4GB.
  • FAT32 has a 2TB limit on partition size.
    • Whereas FAT16 has a 4GB limit on partition size.
  • The file system is not the only source of constraint:
    • Windows XP and Windows 2000 limit partition creation to no larger than 32GB on FAT32. This limitation is by design: Microsoft wants you to use NTFS for large drives.
    • Applications could potentially impose their own limits

  • The Microsoft OS imposed limit of 32GB can be side-stepped by formatting instead from the Apple Mac OS (OS X).